Hong Kong

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This article is about Hong Kong as a special administrative region of China. For other uses, see Hong Kong (disambiguation).
“HK” redirects here. For other uses, see HK (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 22.3°N 114.2°E

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China

A flag with a white 5-petalled flower design on solid red background A red circular emblem, with a white 5-petalled flower design in the centre, and surrounded by the words "Hong Kong" and "中華人民共和國香港特別行政區"
Flag Emblem
Anthem: March of the Volunteers[1]



City flower
Bauhinia blakeana (洋紫荊)
Location of Hong Kong within China
Location of Hong Kong
Official languages
Recognised regional languages Cantonese
Ethnic groups 93.6% Chinese
6.4% others
Religion 21.3% Buddhism
14.2% Taoism
11.8% Christianity
3.1% Islam
49.6% Chinese folk religion and others
Government Special administrative
region of China
 – Chief Executive CY Leung
 – Chief Secretary for Administration Carrie Lam
 – Financial Secretary John Tsang
 – Secretary for Justice Rimsky Yuen
Legislature Legislative Council
 – Treaty of Nanking 29 August 1842
 – Convention of Peking 18 October 1860
 – Second Convention of Peking 1 July 1898
 – Japanese occupation 25 December 1941
to 15 August 1945
 – Transfer of sovereignty
from the United Kingdom
1 July 1997
 – Total 1,104 km2 (179th)
426 sq mi
 – Water (%) 4.58 (50 km2; 19 mi2)[3]
 – 2014 estimate 7,234,800[4] (100th)
 – Density 6,544[5]/km2
17,024/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 – Total $400.607 billion[6](44th)
 – Per capita $55,167[6] (9th)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 – Total $292.677 billion[6](38th)
 – Per capita $40,304[6] (24th)
Gini (2007) 43.4[7]
HDI (2013) Steady 0.891[8]
very high · 15th
Currency Hong Kong dollar(HKD)
Time zone (UTC+8)
 – Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+8)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +852
ISO 3166 code HK
Internet TLD .hk   .香港
Hong Kong
Hong Kong in Chinese 2.svg
Chinese 香港
Cantonese Jyutping Hoeng1gong2
Cantonese Yale Hēunggóng
Hanyu Pinyin Xiānggǎng
Literal meaning Fragrant Harbour
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Traditional Chinese 香港特別行政區 (香港特區)
Simplified Chinese 香港特别行政区 (香港特区)
Cantonese Jyutping Hoeng1gong2Dak6bit6Hang4zing3Keoi1 (or Hoeng1gong2Dak6keoi1)
Hanyu Pinyin Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū (or Xiānggǎng Tèqū)

Hong Kong districts map

Hong Kong (香港; “Fragrant Harbour”), officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of thePeople’s Republic of China, is a city on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea.[9] Hong Kong is well known for its expansive skyline, deep natural harbour and extreme population density(some seven million inhabitants over a land mass of 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi)).[10] The current population of Hong Kong comprises 93.6% ethnic Chinese.[5] A major part of Hong Kong’s Cantonese-speaking majority originated from the neighbouring Canton province (now Guangdong),[11] from where skilled labour fled after the communist government took over China in 1949 and subsequently purged its population during the 1960s.[12][13][14][15]

After China’s defeat in the First Opium War (1839–42) against the British Empire, Hong Kong became a British colony with the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island, followed by Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. After it was occupied by Japan during the Second World War (1941–45), the British resumed control until 30 June 1997. As a result of the negotiations between China and Britain, Hong Kong was transferred to the People’s Republic of China under the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration. The city became China’s first Special Administrative Region on 1 July 1997 under the principle of “one country, two systems“.[16][17]

Towards the late 1970s, Hong Kong became established as a major entrepôt between the world and China. The city has developed into a major global trade hub and financial centre, and is regarded as a world city and one of the eightAlpha+ cities. It ranked fifth on the 2014 Global Cities Index after New York City, London, Tokyo and Paris.[18] The city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, and the most severe income inequality among the advanced economies.[6] It has a high Human Development Index and is ranked highly in the Global Competitiveness Report.[19] Hong Kong is the third most important financial centre after New York and London.[20] The service economy, characterised by low taxation and free trade, has been regarded as one of the world’s most laissez-faireeconomic policies, and the currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the 13th most traded currency in the world.[21]

Limited flat land created a necessity for dense infrastructure, and the city became a centre of modern architecture, earning Hong Kong the title of the world’s most vertical city.[22][23] Hong Kong has a highly developed public transportation network and 90 percent of the population, the highest rate in the world, relies on mass transit by road or rail.[24][25] Air pollution remains a serious problem.[26] Loose emissions standards have resulted in a high level ofatmospheric particulates.[27]